The understanding of motor learning has improved considerably over the past ten years. However, these insights have hardly changed the way of coaching within the rowing world. In the spring of 2015 Jeroen Brinkman started experimenting with differential learning in rowing. The results of these differential experiments were so convincing that he went even further by applying other recent insights of motor learning in rowing. At this moment the Rowing Coach Foundation (Stichting Roeicoach) is the worldwide leader in motor coaching for rowers. Much of this knowledge can be found in this app.
The starting point for motor coaching is that rowers' muscles are deaf. Explaining to a rower how to make his movement (eg "hands together" or "legs first, then trunk and then arms") requires a translation made by the rower from cognitive understanding to motor execution. And a lot goes wrong with that translation. In motor coaching, that translation is made by the coach and he no longer explains the rowing movement. This motor approach appears to be more effective than the classical approach - also for motorically gifted rowers: the rowers learn much faster.
Coaches who use motor learning as a starting point notice two major differences in practice:
- They work with a new set of exercises. Exercises with a poor transfer (eg Pause paddling and rowing with Squared blades) are no longer used. They are replaced by new exercises that make use of motor learning. The type of exercise, whether the exercise is classical or motorial, is indicated in the exercise topics of this app.
- They use a different approach for presenting the exercises. Less attention is paid to the rower's cognitive understanding of an exercise. The coach places greater emphasis on experiential learning, using the rower's sensory skills (focus on...) and motor skills (differential approach). The rower learns to collect feedback on the correct execution.
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Not every exercise changes the rowing stroke. While that should actually be the starting point of an exercise. The quality of the transfer depends on the exercise used as well as the amount of attention the coach pays to that transfer. Classic exercises are less suitable than Motor exercises. A standard transfer is made by having the team row a piece with the same focus as used during the exercise (see the 3-step intervention: Intervene). For some exercises, a specific transfer is available, which is described in the applicable exercise.
Motor exercises are exercises that optimally match the way in which rowers learn new motor skills. In doing so, use is made of modern scientific insights in the field of motor learning. These new motor exercises have been included in this app and are exercises behind the type of exercise. Motor exercises give both a better transfer (transfer of the learned during the exercise to the rowing motion) and a better retention (holding of the learned) than classical exercises.
The differential approach to motor learning challenges the premise that the more often the ideal movement is repeated, the better one becomes at that movement. This approach assumes that variations between performances are necessary to challenge the brain and to learn effectively. It has been scientifically proven that athletes learn up to twice as fast in this way!
In a differential approach you ensure that the room for maneuver is stretched by applying many different variations. Think, for example, of learning the correct trunk movement by bending in a lot and not bending in. Varying the bend angle of the trunk makes it easier to find the right angle.
Inexperienced rowers do not always have the necessary muscle coordination to perform differential exercises directly in the boat. In that case, it is wise to practice on a rowing machine.
Old-way new-way approach
Effective way for quick technique correction in which the old technique is maximally contrasted with the new technique. It is the only approach that is very effective against stubbornly ingrained technical errors. Forms the basis of the 5-step learning process (see: Intervene).
Training sensory system
Part of motor coaching is training a rower's sensory system. He learns how to collect feedback on what the boat is doing as well as on its own movements. He can collect this feedback by feeling (kinistetic), listening (auditory) and looking (visual). Training a rower's sensory skills is an important part of motor coaching.
Stacking technique elements
An effective transfer can be achieved by stacking the technique elements. So first pay attention to technique element , if that goes well, technique element  is added. When both of these go well, another technical element is added. It is wise not to stack more than 3-4 elements. When the rower is no longer successful, he returns to element  and starts stacking again.
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